The unknown influence of the Celts on the fate of Poland
They introduced the knowledge of the potter’s wheel, advanced iron metallurgy and minting – the Celts arrived 2.5 thousand. years ago to the southern areas of present-day Poland and significantly influenced the further fate of the area, says Dr. Przemysław Dulęba in an interview with PAP.
Few people realize that the cradle of the Celtów, contrary to appearances, is not Ireland and Britain at all, but continental Europe. The Celts spread throughout Europe in the middle of the first millennium p.n.e. From an area stretching into the póNorth of the Alps (from Burgundy to the Bohemian Basin).
– Celts hit the turn of the fifth/fourth century. p.n.e. róAlso in the area of present-day Poland – in the region of Silesia and Malopolska – mówi PAP Dr. Przemysław Dulęba of the Institute of Archaeology at the University of Wroclaw, leader of the project "Celtic Poland", którego goal is to fully identify the settlement of these people in the areas of Poland. Along with their rich material culture and skills, the people came from the areaóIn the stretches south of the Sudetenlandów and the Carpathians.
As the archaeologist explains, in the middle of the fifth century p.n.e. The area of present-day southern Poland was almost uninhabited, so the Celts were unlikely to have encountered opór on the part of the local population. In his opinion, there may have been some fighting (it is difficult to prove through archaeological research), but the locals were doomed to defeat and submitted to the newcomers.
– To the Celts we owe a great leap in civilization in our lands,” believes Dr. Dulęba. The scientist points first and foremost to their knowledge of the obrómetalworking. – The huge accumulation of monumentsóin iron in Silesia from this period indicates that metallurgy was very advanced,” says Dr. Dulęba. Detailedólion’s share of attention is drawn to long, double-edged swords made using a compact technique similar to that used póLater in the medieval period.
The archaeologist also points out the numerous set of iron tools introduced by the Celtów, including shears, axes, blows, files, hammers or blacksmith’s tongs, whichóre in a similar form were used in Poland until the end of the pre-industrial era, i.e. the turn of the 18th/19th century. To this day, some of them are used in arts and crafts.
With the Celts also appeared the potter’s wheel – thanks to this invention, ceramic vessels were made more carefully and were of better quality. In someówhere an admixture in the form of graphite was used, which made the pots more resistant to fire and someórych acidów – it róalso a novelty introduced by the Celtów.
– The innovations introduced by the CeltóIn all of Europe there are mnóstwo – they were the first to shoe horses, popularized róincluding the saddle. It was the Celts who created the first chainmail, the scientist calculates.
The first coins, made of gold and silver, found on the present lands of our country are rów also credit the Celtów.
The timing of the arrival of the CeltóThe Celts settled in the areas of present-day Poland in the middle of the first millennium p.n.e. are still poorly recognized and mysterious in the prehistory of southern and central Poland, according to Dr. Dulęba. Someóre from the previous viewóon the events thatóre played out during this period, are subject to change.
For example – it was known that the Celts came from the south. It was believed that groups whoóre found in the Lower Silesia region, they found their way there from póThe arrival of the Celt north of the Carpathian Mountains. Meanwhile, from the latest research of Dr. Dulêba shows that it was different. Celts came from the area of the Middle Danube-Moravia and Lower Austria. This is evidenced by very similar material culture products from both places.
However, quite a lot is known about the Celts – because knowledge about them can be drawn not only from silent monumentsów excavated during the excavations, but also from the records of theóin ancient historiansów.
– From all the information, a picture emerges of the Celtóin as a warlike people whoóre whose social system promoted conquest and plunder raids – the reason for their prosperity. The Celts made handfuls of use of their wealth, który they plundered – this is a feature of all great civilizations,” argues Dr. Dulęba.
Celt migrationsóin the póNorth of the Carpathian Mountains can be cfóknow to move the population in the póIn modern times – e.g. of the great migrationópeoplesóin whichóra led a thousand years póLater until the fall of the Roman Empire.
The incursion of the Celtów may have been caused by unfavorable climatic changes in the place którym where they originally lived, or crop failure – a very important branch of the Celt economyów (oprócz invasionó(w) was the cultivation of the land.
– Perhaps the magnet thatóry were attracted by the Celtóin the southern areas of Poland, there were fertile soils – interestingly, this population settled only in such areas where there were and still are very fertile loess soils. The consistency with which the Celts settled only in these areas is astonishing – móDulęba, Ph.
Celts settled róalso in the area of Malopolska. There, perhaps, they were lured by the salt resources, whichóróThey were also very fond of.
– In prehistory, people obtained sól not through góagriculture, but from salty sourcesódeles – water was evaporated and in this wayób obtained the necessary mineral. This was also the case with Celtów – explains Dr. Dulęba.
The Celts had a strategic sense – excavations show that the largest number of their settlements were located just beyond the so-called “red” area. The Moravian Gate, which is the most important and convenient passage between the Carpathians and the Sudetes. We know mnóstwo traceóin the wake of Celt’s stayóin the Glubczycki Upland in the region of Raciborz, Glubczyce or Kędzierzyn-Koźle.
– The control of the Moravian Gate was important in terms of deriving profitóin trade. The path on the p-axisóNorth-south – from the Adriatic Sea to the Baltic Sea was crucial during this period – mówi archaeological.